GLOSSARIO INGLESE E ITALIANO - CIVILE E PENALE

LEGAL GLOSSARY - ESSENTIAL TERMS

Legal Glossary NY Service    
Black’s law dictionary –   
De Franchis –   
British Institutes –    
English for lawyer –    
prof. Gaetano Paluccio (2017)   

 

CRIMINAL

PARTY: one of the sides in a court case.  The parties are usually called the “plaintiff” or “petitioner” and the “defendant” or “respondent.” On appeal, parties are called the “appellant” and “appellee.” ~ parte in genere: di un atto, contratto, processo, partito politico.

PETITIONER: one who present a petition to a court, officer, or legislative body ~ ricorrente, richiedente.

PLAINTIFF: a person who starts a civil case ~ attore.

COMPLAINANT: person that starts a court case against another person.  In a civil case, the complainant is the plaintiff.  In a criminal case, the complainant is the State ~ ricorrente, querelante, parte offesa

DEFENDANT: the person defending or denying. In a civil case, the person, corporation, or organization sued by the plaintiff.  In a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.  In Housing Court this person is called the respondent ~ convenuto, imputato.

THIRD-PARTY ACTION: when a defendant in a case sues another party and brings him or her into the case ~ chiamata in causa di terzi.

LAWSUIT: term for a suit, action, or cause instituted or depending between two private persons in the courts of law ~ azione legale promossa da un ricorrente contro un convenuto in base a un ricorso in cui si afferma che questi non ha adempiuto un obbligo legale, arrecando così danno al ricorrente.

LITIGATION:  a court case or lawsuit.  The people involved in lawsuits (plaintiffs and defendants) are called litigants ~ controversia legale, processo, giudizio.

SUIT: A court case ~ procedimento giudiziario o non giudiziario.

TO BROUGHT ACTION AGAINST SOMEONE: to start a lawsuit against a person ~ proporre azione contro qualcuno.

VENUE: the geographical area, in which a court may hear and determine a case ~ il luogo geografico in cui il caso viene giudicato.

LEGAL ARGUMENT: legal argumentation, conforming to the law ~ argomentazione giuridica

BURDEN OF PROOF: the necessity or duty of affirmatively proving a fact of facts in dispute on an issue raised between the parties in a cause ~ onere della prova

ACCUSATORIAL SYSTEM: where judges do not investigate the case but listen to the evidence and then make a judgment ~ sistema accusatorio, si contrappone a quello inquisitorio.

INQUISITORIAL SYSTEM: where the judge investigate the case ~ sistema inquisitorio, tipico del processo penale inglese e nordamericano.

PROCEDURE: the rules for conducting a proceeding. There are rules of civil procedure, criminal procedure, and rules of evidence presentation, etc. ~ procedura, ossia regole per la conduzione di un procedimento. Esistono regole di procedura civile, penale, di presentazione delle prove, di diritto fallimentare, e d’appello.

PROSECUTE: to carry on a judicial proceeding, to proceed against a person criminally ~ incriminare, accusare una persona di un reato.

PROSECUTOR: one who prosecutes another for a crime in the name of the government ~ pubblico ministero, conduce il processo penale per conto del governo.

UNITED STATES ATTORNEY: is appointed by the President for each judicial district and has the duty to prosecute for all offenses against the U.S. government. ~ Procuratore degli Stati Uniti, avvocato nominato dal Presidente in ogni distretto giudiziario, il cui compito è di rappresentare l’accusa o la difesa per conto del governo federale. Il Procuratore degli Stati Uniti impiega uno staff di viceprocuratori che compaiono come procuratori del governo nei singoli procedimenti.

PRIME SUSPECT: main suspect of a crime ~ principale indagato di un reato.

PRE-TRIAL CONFERENCE:  a conference between the judge and attorneys to plan the proceedings, determine what issues should be presented to the jury, review the evidence and witnesses to be presented, and set dates for the trial. Usually, the judge and the parties also discuss the possibility of reaching a settlement. ~ riunione precedente al dibattimento: riunione tra il giudice e gli avvocati per programmare il procedimento, stabilire quali questioni debbano essere presentate alla giuria, esaminare le prove e i testimoni che si intendono presentare, e fissare le date del dibattimento. Solitamente il giudice e le parti discutono anche la possibilità di arrivare a una transazione.

 

PANEL: (1) Group of judges; a nine-member appellate court might be divided into three, three member panels with each panel hearing and deciding cases. (2) In the jury selection process, the pool of potential jurors. (3) List of attorneys available and qualified to defend, by court appointment, defendants who cannot afford private counsel. ~ (1) (collegio): nei procedimenti in appello, gruppo di giudici (in genere tre) assegnati a giudicare il caso. (2) Nel procedimento di selezione della giuria, il gruppo di potenziali giurati. (3) Elenco di avvocati disponibili e qualificati a difendere, su nomina del tribunale, gli imputati che non possono permettersi un avvocato privato.

SUMMARY PROCEEDING: short and simple proceedings in comparison with regular proceedings. ~ non indica il procedimento sommario italiano, che non esiste in U.S. ma il summary trial in materia penale, ossia il procedimento davanti a una magistrates court senza la partecipazione della giuria.

 

REVERSE: to overthrow, revoke a judgement, sentence, or decree of the trial court, or to change to the contrary or to a former condition. Frequently accompanied by remand which means referral to the trial court for further proceedings. ~ rovesciare; atto con cui una corte d’appello revoca la sentenza del tribunale di prima istanza, spesso accompagnato da remand, cioè rinvio al tribunale di merito per ulteriori procedimenti.

 

JUDGMENT: the final decision of the court resolving the dispute and determining the rights and obligation of the parties. ~ sentenza

SENTENCE: the judgement formally pronounced by the court or the judge upon the defendant after his conviction in a criminal prosecution, imposing the punishment. ~ condanna, indica la pena irrogata dal giudice nel processo penale.

WRIT: an order issued from a court requiring the performance of a specified act or giving authority to have it done. ~ ordine o intimazione formale scritta, emessa dal tribunale, con la quale si ingiunge di eseguire un determinato atto.

SLANDER: False or malicious statements that are insulting or belittling) and hurt a person’s reputation.  See libel. ~ diffamazione, denigrazione; è una delle due forme che può assumere la defamation ed è la dichiarazione falsa e diffamatoria relativa a una persona fatta verbalmente o in un’altra forma non permanente. Non costituisce reato, anche se dà diritto a proporre un’azione civile.

DEFAMATION: When a person hurts another person’s character, fame. ~ diffamazione, offesa della reputazione altrui in genere; vi sono notevoli differenze tra la disciplina italiana e quella statunitense.

MITIGATING CIRCUMSTANCES: such as do not constitute a justification or excuse of the offense in question, but which, in fairness and mercy, may be considered as extenuating or reducing this degree of moral culpability. ~ circostanze attenuanti

MOTIVE: cause or reason that moves the will and induces action. An inducement, or that which leads or tempts the mind to indulge a criminal act. ~ movente

ARREST: to deprive an individual of liberty ~ arresto

ACCUSATION: a formal charge against a person, to the effect that he is guilty of punishable offense, laid before court or magistrate having jurisdiction to inquire into the alleged crime. ~ imputazione

BENCH TRIAL: trial without a jury where the Judge decides the case. ~ processo senza giuria.

CHARGED: accusation of crime by complaint, indictment, or information. A person is charged with such if he has information sufficient to inform him of the subject matter. ~ accusato   

CONVICTED: if someone is convicted of a crime, they are found guilty of that crime in a law court. ~ condannato

COURT HOUSE: the building occupied for the public sections of a court, with its various offices. ~ tribunale

CRIMINAL INTENT (SPECIFIC C.): the intent to commit a crime. ~ dolo intenzionale e specifico (nel commettere un reato)

FELONY: an offense for which a sentence to a term of imprisonment more than one year may be imposed. For sentence, felonies are divided into five categories or classes: A, B, C, D and E felonies. Class A felonies are divided into two sub-categories: A-I and A-II felonies.

Class A felonies carry the longest jail sentences and class E felonies carry the shortest jail sentences for felony cases.

Jail sentences for misdemeanor and violations or infractions are even shorter. ~ reato

MURDER: the unlawful killing of a human being by another with malice aforethought, either express or implied ~ omicidio volontario, compiuto con premeditazione.

RAPE: unlawful sexual intercourse with a person without her/his consent. ~ violenza sessuale, stupro

TRIAL:  A proceeding where the parties give the facts and laws to a Judge for a decision.  It can be a bench trial, a trial that is heard and decided by a Judge or it can be a jury trial, that is a trial that is heard and decided by a jury. ~ processo, giudizio

[2]

Civil ~ Civile

A

 

ABIURATION OF ALLEGIANCE: One of the steps in the process of naturalizing an alien. It consists in a formal declaration, made by the party under oath before a competent authority, that he renounces and abjures all the allegiance and fidelity which he owes to the sovereign whose subject he has theretofore been. ~ una fase del processo di naturalizzazione di un cittadino straniero consistente nella dichiarazione formale, fatta sotto giuramento davanti all’autorità competente, che rinuncia alla propria cittadinanza.

ABOLISH A RULE: to terminate the legal effect of some rule. ~ abrogare una norma, abolire una legge.

ABSENT PARTY: parte in contumacia.

ACQUITTANCE: the discharge of a debt or obligation. ~ estinzione di un debito o di una obbligazione.

AFFIDAVIT (A. ON IMMIGRANT): a written or printed declaration by which a citizen declares that he or she will provide for the maintenance of an immigrant in case the latter is in a state of unemployment. ~ dichiarazione scritta con cui un cittadino dichiara di provvedere al mantenimento di un immigrato in caso quest’ultimo si trovi in stato di disoccupazione.

ANTICIPATORY BREACH OF CONTRACT: such occurs when the promisor without justification and before he has committed a breach makes a positive statement to promisee indicating he will not or cannot perform his contractual duties. ~ risoluzione contrattuale anticipata, risoluzione anticipata della prestazione dedotta nel contratto.

APPEARANCE: a coming into court as a party to a suit, either in person or by attorney, wheiter as plaintiff or defendant. ~ comparsa in udienza (di una parte o di un avvocato).

ADJOURNMENT: To put off a court date until another time or place

appeal:  A request to a higher court to check a lower court’s decision to find out if it was right. The person who asks for the appeal is called the appellant. The other person is called the appellee. ~ Rinvio, sospensione, differimento in genere. Si distingue tra le due fasi de processo (pre-trial e trial) per cui nella prima le parti possono addivenire al rinvio di taluni aspetti della procedura che si svolge davanti al master. Non si riscontrano nella prassi giudiziaria inglese le udienze di puro rinvio. Il rinvio del trial è molto raro.

AD LITEM: Latin “for this lawsuit.” ~ Alle liti (procura)

AFFIDAVIT: sworn written statement ~ dichiarazione scritta giurata

AT ISSUE: in dispute ~ in discussione

B

BAD FAITH: the opposite of “good faith”, generally implying or involving actual or constructive fraud. ~ mala fede

bar: The group of lawyers permitted to practice law in a state.

BAR: the court sitting in full term ~ foro di… tale ad esempio “the Crotone bar” ovvero ” il Foro di Crotone “.

BAR (BAR ASSOCIATION): an association of members of the legal profession ~ associazione forense, organizzazione generale dell’avvocatura

BEYOND ALL REASONABLE DOUBT: In evidence means fully satisfied, entirely convinced, satisfied to a moral certainty ~ al di là di ogni ragionevole dubbio

BINDER: A written document that records the essential provisions of a contract of insurance and temporarily protects the insured until an insurance company has investigated the risks to be covered, or until a formal policy is issued. ~ dichiarazione scritta riportante le clausole

fondamentali (clausole vincolanti o cd. chiave) di un accordo

BODY: ente, organismo (negli U.S.A)

BURDEN OF PROOF: the duty placed upon a party to prove or disprove a disputed fact, or it can define which party bears this burden. ~ onere della prova

BUSINESS NAME:  name or designation used by companies to identify themselves and distinguish their businesses from others in the same field. ~ ragione sociale

BREACH OF CONTRACT: failure, without legal excuse, to perform any promise which forms the whole or part of a contract ~ mancato adempimento contrattuale, rifiuto di adempiere una prestazione contrattuale dichiarato dopo la scadenza del termine finale per l’adempimento

BREACH OF LAW: Violazione di legge

BREATH TEST: Examining someone’s breath to see how much alcohol is in his or her body. Sometimes called a Breathalyzer test. ~ alcool test

BENCH TRIAL: trial without a jury where the Judge decides the case. ~ processo senza giuria

BRIEFT: documents containing the details of a court case. ~ fascicolo contenente i documenti di un caso giudiziario

C

CALENDAR CALL: a court session given to calling the cases awaiting trial to determine the present status of each case and commonly to assign a date for trial ~ data di udienza di una causa

CASE LAW: Law made by other decisions in similar cases. ~ giurisprudenza

CASH ON DELIVERY (C.O.D.): a method of doing business in which a company will transport goods to a customer and take payment for the goods at the time they are given to the customer ~ pagamento alla consegna.

CAVEAT: a formal notice or warning given by a party interested to a court,judge or ministerial officer against the performance of certain acts within his power and jurisdiction ~ diffida legale, avvertimento ufficiale, avviso ufficiale, procedimento di opposizione.

CHALLENGE:  Someone’s objection or argument against something in a legal case. ~ impugnazione, opposizione, eccezione, contestazione.

CHAIRMAN: presiding officer of an assembly, public meeting, convention, deliberative or legislative body, board of directors, committee, etc. ~ presidente di un’assemblea, riunione, convenzione, della società.

CHARGE: to accuse formally someone of a crime usually by the police ~ accusa.

CIVIL LIABILITY: a sum of money assessed either as general, special or liquidated damages ~ responsabilità civile, responsabilità per il

risarcimento dei danni

CO-DEFENDANT: co-imputato

COLD CASE: an unsolved criminal investigation which remains open pending the discovery of new evidence ~ caso irrisolto.

COLITIGANT: litisconsorte

COLOR OF LAW: the appearance or semblance, without the substance, of legal right ~ fumus boni iuris,

COME INTO FORCE: entrare in vigore

COMMON LAW (JUS COMMUNE): CL; judge made law; The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on court decisions rather than statutes passed by the legislature; common law: 1.  Laws that come from court decisions and not from statutes (“codes”) or constitutions.  2.  The body of law which began in England on where U.S. law came from.

COMPLAINT:  A written statement that starts a case.  It says what the plaintiff says the defendant did and it asks the court for relief (help).  Also called the initial pleading or petition. ~ denuncia

COMPOUND A LEGAL DISPUTE: to compromise, a composition of legal dispute ~ transigere su una lite, comporre una disputa legale.

COURT HOUSE: the building occupied for the public sections of a court, with its various offices. ~ tribunale

D

DAMAGES: a pecuniary compensation or indemnity, which may be recovered in the courts by any person who has suffered loss, detriment, or injury, whether to his person, property, or rights, through the unlawful act or omission or negligence of another ~ somma dovuta a titolo di risarcimento danni

DEBT: a sum of money due by certain and express agreement ~ debito

DEBTOR: one who owes a debt; he who may be compelled to pay a claim or demand ~ debitore

DEED: a writing signed by grantor, whereby title to realty is transferred from one to another ~ atto notarile di compravendita, atto provante il diritto di proprietà, atto scritto che prevede il trasferimento di un titolo da un soggetto ad un altro.

DEFAULT: by its derivation, a failure ~ inadempienza

DEFENCE BRIEF: a document explaining elements in favour of defendant ~ documento contenente elementi a difesa dell’imputato.

defendant:  In a civil case, the person, corporation or organization sued by the plaintiff.  In a criminal case, the person accused of the crime. In Housing Court this person is called the respondent. ~ imputato

DELIVERY ORDER: a document giving written instructions from a person selling goods that they should be given or taken to the buyer ~ ordine di consegna

DISABILITY (LEGAL D.): an illness, injury, or medical condition that makes it difficult for someone to do the things that other people do ~ incapacità giuridica, incapacità legale

DIVORCE (NO FAULT D.): divorzio consensuale (ammesso

in tutti gli Stati degli U.S.A, eccetto che in Illinois e South Dakota)

DOCKET NUMBER: A nine-character court reference number which identifies a criminal court case. The first two digits indicate the year in which the case was filed. The third character is a letter which identifies the county in which to case was filed*.

Example: The final six digits identify the specific case.

* N = New York (Manhattan); K = Kings (Brooklyn); Q = Queens; X = Bronx; R = Richmond (Staten Island); C = Midtown Community Court ~ numero del fascicolo che identifica il caso.

E

EASEMENT: the legal right to cross or use someone else’s land for a particular purpose ~ servitù.

EFFORT A CRIME: reato tentato

EJECTION: a lawsuit brought to remove a party who is occupying real property. It is against someone who has tried to claim title to the property. ~ sfratto

ESTATE (PERSONAL E.): movable property, as distinguished from real estate ~ proprietà mobiliare

ESTATE (TO REACH MAN’S E.): raggiungere la maggiore età

ESTATE (REAL E.): Land, including the resources in and on it, and the buildings and permanent fixtures attached to it. ~ bene immobile, proprietà immobiliare, proprietà fondiaria

ESTATE (LIFE E.): the legal right to own and control a property, such as a building or piece of land, for the length of time that you are alive ~ diritto di usufrutto.

F

FILE: fascicolo, raccolta di documenti, archivio

FIRM: The name or designation under which a company transacts business ~ società commerciale

FAULT: Neglect of care; an act to which blame, or censure is attached. Fault implies any Negligence, error, or defect of judgment. ~ colpa

FINES: an amount of money that has to be paid as a punishment for not obeying a rule or law ~ multa

FINE: A sentence that requires the payment of money to the court ~ ammenda.

FORECLOSURE: the action of taking back property that was bought with borrowed money because the money was not being paid back as formally agreed, or an example of this ~ sequestro e successiva vendita giudiziale di un bene ipotecato o sottoposto a pegno

H

HEARING: proceedings held before a court or tribunal; A court proceeding where testimony is given, exhibits are reviewed, and/or legal arguments are made to help a judge decide an issue in a case. ~ udienza, audizione.

HEIRESS: a female heir to a person having an estate of inheritance. When there is more than one, they are called co-heiresses, or co-heirs. ~ erede (riferito a persona di sesso femminile)

J

JUDICIAL PRECEDENT: The doctrine by which decision of courts in previous cases are considered as a source of law which binds courts in later similar cases ~ precedente giudiziario.

JURISDICTION: the authority that a particular court of law or official organization has to make laws, rules, or legal decisions ~ competenza: potere legittimo di un tribunale di giudicare un determinato caso. Oppure giurisdizione: area geografica nella quale il tribunale ha competenza territoriale a giudicare.

L

LANDLORD: A lessor of real property; the owner or possessor of an estate in land or a rental property, who, in an exchange for rent, leases it to another individual known as the tenant ~ proprietario di immobile, proprietario di terreno o fondo, locatore di immobile.

LAW (DISREGARD OF THE L.): inosservanza della legge

LAW (REGARD OF THE L.): osservanza della legge

LAWMAKERS: who writes and enacts laws ~ legislatori

LAWSUIT: term for a suit, action, or cause instituted or depending between two private persons in the courts of law ~ azione legale promossa da un ricorrente contro un convenuto in base a un ricorso in cui si afferma che questi non ha adempiuto un obbligo legale, arrecando così danno al ricorrente.

LEGAL PROCEEDINGS: a comprehensive term for any proceeding in a court of law whereby an individual seeks a legal remedy; court case ~ procedimento giudiziario.

LEMON LAW: a law that requires manufacturers to replace, repair, or refund the cost of goods that prove to be defective. ~ legge che permette all’acquirente di un bene risultato (a molti altri acquirenti) difettoso, di ottenere (tramite una specifica azione legale) un celere e congruo rimborso o sostituzione del prodotto in questione.

LIABILITY:   1.  A person’s responsibility to do or to not do something.  2.  A person’s responsibility for causing an injury. ~ responsabilità

LEGAL QUIBBLE: a legal cavil ~ cavillo legale

LITIGANT: party in a civil action ~ controparte in un processo civile.

LITIGATION:  a court case or lawsuit.  The people involved in lawsuits (plaintiffs and defendants) are called litigants ~ controversia legale, processo, giudizio.

LIABILITY: responsabilità, joint and several liability ~ responsabilità in solido.

M

MANDATORY: obbligatorio

MORTGAGE: an agreement that allows someone to borrow money from a bank or similar organization by offering something of value, especially in order to buy a house or apartment, or the amount of money itself ~ ipoteca.

N

NATURAL PERSON: persona fisica, distinta dalla cd.

fictitious person ovvero persona giuridica.

NEGLECT: to pay no attention or too little attention to; disregard or slight. ~ omissione (di soccorso, di atti d’ufficio, di dovere)

NET ESTATE: the estate remaining after debts and funeral expenses and administrative expenses have been deducted from the gross estate ~ patrimonio netto del de cuius (dedotte le spese e passività).

NOMINAL DEFENDANT: a defendant or a plaintiff included in a lawsuit because of a technical connection with the matter in dispute, and necessary for the court to decide all issues and make a proper judgment, but with no responsibility, no fault and no right to recovery. ~ legale rappresentante, persona che esercita la rappresentanza in giudizio.

NORM: rule; a pattern of behavior considered acceptable or proper by a social group ~ norma.

NOTARIAL DEED: a special form of public document, drafted by a notary, and upon request annexes or question to the deed explained and may read it aloud. ~ rogito notarile

NOTE OF HANDS: a promise to pay a specified amount on demand or at a certain time ~ cambiale, impegno scritto di pagare una determinata somma ad una determinata data.

NOTE (PROMISSORY N.): A negotiable written promise to pay a specified sum of money on demand or at a particular time. ~ pagherò cambiario

O

OATH: legally binding promise ~ promessa giuridicamente vincolante.

OBITER DICTA: remarks of a judge which are not necessary to reaching a decision, but are made as comments, illustrations or thoughts. ~ parte della stesura di una sentenza contenente parole superflue (non influenti sui fatti o sulla motivazione della sentenza)

OPPOSING LAWYER: avvocato di controparte

OPPOSITE PARTY: controparte processuale

P

PARTY: one of the sides in a court case.  The parties are usually called the “plaintiff” or “petitioner” and the “defendant” or “respondent.” On appeal, parties are called the “appellant” and “appellee.” ~ parte in genere: di un atto, contratto, processo, partito politico.

PAROL EVIDENCE: verbal expressions or words. Verbal evidence, such as the testimony of a witness at trial. ~ prova orale

PARTNERSHIP: An association of two or more persons engaged in a business enterprise in which the profits and losses are shared proportionally. ~ società di persone

PAY OFF: To pay the full amount on a debt. ~ saldare un debito

PAY UP: to give over the full monetary amount demanded. ~ pagare gli arretrati.

PAWN: Something given as security for a loan; a pledge or guaranty. ~ pegno

PLAINTIFF: a person who starts a civil case ~ attore.

PLEA: A defendant’s answer in a civil action. ~ comparsa di risposta, dichiarazione difensiva iniziale; dichiarazione iniziale dell’imputato (guilty, not guilty).

PLEAD GUILTY (GUILTY PLEA):  When defendant admits to having committed a charged offense ~ dichiararsi colpevole

PLEAD OF NO-CONTEST (PLEAD OF NOLO

CONTENDERE): dichiarazione con cui l’imputato ammette la

sua colpevolezza, ammissione di colpevolezza

PLEADING: an application to a court to obtain an order, ruling or decision or defence in a civil case ~ difesa

PLEADINGS: the formal written statements presented alternately by the claimant and defendant in a lawsuit setting out the respective matters relied upon. ~ note scritte presentate al tribunale

PRE-EMPTION RIGHT (PREEMPTIVE RIGHT): a contractual right to acquire certain property newly coming into existence before it can be offered to any other person or entity ~ diritto di prelazione.

PRECEPT:  a commandment, instruction, or order intended as an authoritative rule of action. ~ ordine di precetto, ordine di eseguire una determinata prestazione.

PROBATE OF THE WILL: omologazione del testamento,

copia certificata autentica del testamento, prova ufficiale

della autenticità del testamento.

PROBATE: the legal recognition of the validity of a will ~ azione legale diretta a far convalidare un testamento; procedura di esame della

validità di un testamento.

Q

QUERY: a form of questioning, in a line of inquiry ~ domanda

QUESTION: sollevare obiezioni, contestare, sollevare una

contestazione

R

REALTY: real property or real estate ~ bene immobile

RECORD: to set down for preservation in writing or other permanent form ~ protocollare, registrare

RENTAL FEE: an amount paid or collected as rent ~ canone di affitto

RESCIND A CONTRACT: bilaterally terminate a contractual obligation, recede from a contract (consensual termination declared by both parties) ~ recedere bilateralmente da un vincolo contrattuale, rescindere da un contratto (rescissione consensuale dichiarata da ambo le parti).

RESTITUTION: the act of restoring to the rightful owner something that has been taken away, lost, or surrendered. ~ risarcimento

REVOKE: to invalidate or cause to no longer be in effect, as by voiding or canceling ~ revocare

RIDER: an addition or amendment to a document ~ postilla, nota

RULES OF PROCEDURE: regole procedurali

S

 SALE CONTRACT: a contract under which the seller of a product transfers or agrees to transfer the product to the buyer of the product for a money consideration. ~ contratto di vendita

SERVICE OF PROCESS: completion of all legal requirements to give official notice to a person regarding a lawsuit filed against that person ~ notifica di atti processuali

SETTLEMENT: process in which a buyer makes payment and receives the agreed-upon good or service. ~ transazione

STARE DECISIS: stand by decision – the fundamental principle of judicial precedent; the full version of the maxim is means, stand by the decision, and do not disturb that which is settled

STATEMENT: dichiarazione

SUBPOENA: command to appear in court to give evidence ~ citazione in giudizio

SUMMARY JUDGMENT: a legal process in which a court makes a decision based on the facts that have been provided, without ordering a trial ~ giudizio sommario, decisione di una corte in base a dichiarazioni e prove presentate per essere messe agli atti, senza dibattimento. Vi si ricorre quando non è necessario risolvere controversie per questioni di fatto, e viene accordato quando, in base ai fatti non controversi risultanti agli atti, una delle parti ha diritto a un pronunciamento in punto di diritto.

SUMMON: a notice to a person that he or she is being sued. It lets him or her know where and when the answer must be filed. It also lets the person know that if he or she does not answer by the deadline a default judgment may be entered against him or her; official order to appear in court. ~ citazione

T

TERMINATION: cessation; conclusion; end in time or existence. ~ termine di scadenza

TICKET: A citation, usually for a traffic violation ~ multa, di solito per violazioni del codice stradale.

TORT: private or civil wrong for which damages can be obtained in a civil court; tort:  1.  An injury or wrong against a person.  2.  Not doing some duty required by law or custom that harm another person. ~ illecito

TRIAL: the process of deciding a civil or criminal case before a court. It can be a bench trial, a trial that is heard and decided by a Judge or it can be a jury trial, that is a trial that is heard and decided by a jury.

 ~ processo

V

VENUE:  the geographical area, in which a court may hear and determine a case ~ il luogo geografico in cui il caso viene giudicato.

VERDICT: the decision of a jury or magistrates regarding someone’s guilt or innocence ~ verdetto, decisione.

VOID:  not valid or legal ~ nullo

VIOLATE:  to disregard or act in a manner that does not conform to ~ violare

W

WRIT: formal order from court ordering someone to do or not to do do some specified act; a court order in writing that says that a certain action must be taken, for example, making a person to appear in court.  There are many kinds of writs:  1.  A writ of attachment is an order to seize (take) specified property.  2.  A writ of certiorari is an order by an appellate court granting or denying a review of a judgment.   3.  A writ of execution is an order to enforce a court judgment.  4.  A writ of Habeas Corpus is an order to release someone that was put in prison, but it was wrong.  5.  A writ of Mandamus is an order to perform an act already part of a person’s duty.  6.  A writ of prohibition orders a person who has a duty to perform an act to stop doing it.  This is usually an order from a higher to a lower court.  This is the opposite of a writ of Mandamus. ~ ingiunzione.

 

Criminal ~ Penale

A

ABUSIVE WORDS: use of abusive language to another person ~ ingiurie verbali o scritte, denigrazione attuata attraverso scritti o parole.

ACCIDENTAL INJURY: an unfortunate mishap, causing damage or injury ~ lesione involontaria.

ACCUSATION: An act of accusing or the state of being accused ~ imputazione.

ACQUITTAL: the deliverance and release of a person appearing before a court on a charge of crime, as by a finding of not guilty ~ assoluzione.

ACT (IN THE A.): while doing something ~ in flagrante, sul fatto.

AGGRAVATING CIRCUMSTANCES: any circumstance attending the commission of a crime or tort which increases its guilt or enormity or adds to its injurious consequences, but which is above and beyond the essential constituents of the crime or tort itself. ~ circostanze aggravanti

ARRAIGNMENT (charge, prosecution): The bringing of an accused person to a court to answer a charge that has been made. ~ accusa.

ARREST (HOUSE A.): to deprive an individual of liberty. ~ arresti domiciliari (misura cautelare alternativa alla detenzione in carcere).

ASSAULT: any willful attempt or threat to inflict injury upon the person of another, when coupled with an apparent present ability so to do, and any intentional display of force such as would give the victim reason to fear or expect immediate bodily harm, constitutes an assault. ~ minaccia di violenza fisica seguita immediatamente dalla violenza vera e propria.

ASSAULT AND BATTERY: any unlawful touching of another which is without justification or excuse. It is both a tort. ~ qualsiasi contatto configurante reato, di un altro che è senza giustificazione o scusa. Si tratta di un illecito.

B

BATTERY: criminal battery, defined as the unlawful application of force to the person of another ~ percosse

C

CHARGED: accusation of crime by complaint, indictment, or information. A person is charged with such if he has information sufficient to inform him of the subject matter. ~ accusato  

CONVICT: to pronounce someone guilty of an offence ~ dichiarare colpevole, condannare ad una pena detentiva, infliggere una condanna penale.

CONVICTED: if someone is convicted of a crime, they are found guilty of that crime in a law court. ~ condannato

COUNT:  Each separate charge (or statement) in a case. ~ capo d’accusa

CRIMINAL INTENT (SPECIFIC C.): the intent to commit a crime. ~ dolo intenzionale e specifico (nel commettere un reato).

D

DEATH PENALTY: A sentence or punishment of death by execution. ~ pena capitale, pena di morte.

DEFAMATION: When a person hurts another person’s character, fame. ~ diffamazione, offesa della reputazione altrui in genere; vi sono notevoli differenze tra la disciplina italiana e quella statunitense.

DEFENDANT: the person defending or denying. In a civil case, the person, corporation, or organization sued by the plaintiff.  In a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.  In Housing Court this person is called the respondent ~ convenuto, imputato.

DRUG DEALING: traffico di sostanze stupefancenti

DRUG PUSHING: spaccio di sostanze stupefacenti

E

EXTENUATING CIRCUMSTANCES: such as render a delict, or crime less aggravated, or reprehensive than it would otherwise be, or tend to palliate or lessen its guilt. Such circumstances may ordinarily be shown to reduce the punishment or damages. ~ circostanze attenuanti

F

FALSE ARREST: an arrest that is unauthorized by law ~ arresto illegale

FELONY: an offense for which a sentence to a term of imprisonment more than one year may be imposed. For sentence, felonies are divided into five categories or classes: A, B, C, D and E felonies. Class A felonies are divided into two sub-categories: A-I and A-II felonies. Class A felonies carry the longest jail sentences and class E felonies carry the shortest jail sentences for felony cases.

Jail sentences for misdemeanor and violations or infractions are even shorter. ~ reato

G

GAG ORDER: a court order forbidding parties in a legal action, lawyers, witnesses, and jurors, from making statements to the press regarding an ongoing case in which they are participating ~ ordinanza con cui il giudice vieta agli avvocati o alle parti processuali di rilasciare dichiarazioni ai media o a diffondere (con qualsiasi mezzo), notizie o indiscrezioni riguardanti il caso.

GROSS NEGLIGENCE: Any voluntary, intentional, and conscious act or omission committed by an individual, with reckless disregard for the consequences, especially how they may affect another person’s life or property ~ colpa grave

H

HABEAS CORPUS RULES: n the US system, federal courts can use the writ of habeas corpus to determine if a state’s detention of a prisoner is valid.  A writ of habeas corpus is used to bring a prisoner or other detainee (institutionalized mental patient) before the court to determine if the person’s imprisonment or detention is lawful. ~ norme riguardanti le garanzie e le libertà personali dell’imputato (dall’arresto alla messa a disposizione del giudice).

HARASSEMENT: molestia e disturbo alle persone (in

maniera continua e sistematica)

I

INMATE: A person incarcerated in detention center, jail, or prison ~ detenuto

INTENTIONAL: done with intention or on purpose ~ intenzionale

INDICTMENT: a document that contains the felony (and perhaps also misdemeanor) charges that were voted by the grand jury. ~ Imputazione

J

JAIL SENTENCE: a term of imprisonment imposed by a court ~ pena detentiva

 

L

LIBEL: written defamation which damages someone in a court action ~ diffamazione

M

MANSLAUGHTER:  When someone kills a person but didn’t mean to do it.  See murder and homicide. ~omicidio colposo.

MINIMUM SENTENCE: minimo della pena

MIRANDA WARNING (MIRANDA RULE): the rule that police (when interrogating you after an arrest) are obliged to warn you that anything you say may be used as evidence and to read you your constitutional rights (the right to a lawyer and the right to remain silent until advised by a lawyer) ~ avviso orale rivolto (dalla polizia) ad un soggetto in stato di arresto (consistente nella lettura dei diritti dell’arrestato e delle sue

facoltà quale quella di nominare un difensore, di restare in silenzio, e di essere consapevole che qualunque dichiarazione resa potrà essere usata contro di lui nel processo).

MISDEMEANOR: crime punishable imprisonment for not more than 1 year a fine or both ~ reato minore

MISPRISION: Neglect in performing the duties of public office. ~ favoreggiamento

MITIGATING CIRCUMSTANCES: such as do not constitute a justification or excuse of the offense in question, but which, in fairness and mercy, may be considered as extenuating or reducing this degree of moral culpability. ~ circostanze attenuanti

MITIGATIONS (GENERICAL M.): ~ attenuanti generiche

MISTRAL: something which has no legal effect and is considered an invalid or nugatory trial ~ errore giudiziario – processo annullabile/nullo

MENS REA: criminal intent ~ premeditazione

MOTIVE: the reason a person may have committed a crime ~ movente.

MURDER: the unlawful killing of a human being by another with malice aforethought, either express or implied ~ omicidio volontario, compiuto con premeditazione.

MURDER (FIRST DEGREE M.): omicidio di primo grado

MURDER (SECOND DEGREE M.): omicidio di secondo

grado, omicidio preterintenzionale, omicidio non premeditato.

N

NEGLIGENT HOMICIDE: killing of another person through gross negligence or without malice ~ omicidio colposo  

O

OFFENCE: crime ~ crimine

OFFENDER: person who has commited a crime ~ colpevole

OVERRULE: a judicial decision is overruled when a later decision, made by the same tribunal or a higher court in the same system, hands down a decision concerning the identical question of law, which is in direct opposition to the earlier decision. ~ rovesciare, annullare.

P

PENALTY: a money fine or forfeiture of property ordered by the judge after conviction for a crime. ~ ammenda

PERJURY: intentionally lying after being duly sworn (to tell the truth) by a notary public, court clerk or other official ~ falsa testimonianza

PLEA: the response by an accused defendant to each charge of the commission of a crime ~ appello; dichiarazione di innocenza o colpevolezza: nel processo penale è la dichiarazione dell’imputato (“colpevole” o “non colpevole”) in risposta alle accuse.

PLEA BARGAIN: An agreement between the defendant, a judge, and a prosecutor in which the defendant admits guilt, usually in exchange for a promise that a particular sentence will be imposed. ~Patteggiamento

PLEAD: the entry of plea of a defendant in response to each charge of criminal conduct ~ a fare appello per…

PRESUMED GUILTY: an accused person is not presumed guilty until guilt has been proved in the legally established manner. ~ presunto colpevole

PRESUMPTION OF INNOCENCE: legal principle that one is considered innocent until proven guilty ~ presunzione di innocenza

PRIME SUSPECT: ~principale indagato di un reato.

PRISONERS’ WARDEN: agente di polizia penitenziaria.

PROBATION: a system of dealing with offenders by placing them under the supervision of a probation officer ~ (1) istituto simile alla libertà vigilata, la probation costituisce un’alternativa all’incarcerazione, con la quale la corte rilascia un imputato trovato colpevole, sotto la sorveglianza di un probation officer (v.) incaricato di controllare che l’imputato si attenga ad alcune regole (p.es. trovi un impiego, segua una terapia o un corso contro la tossicodipendenza, svolga attività di servizio civile ecc.). (2) Un ufficio del tribunale incaricato di redigere rapporti di indagine preliminari alla condanna.

PROCEEDINGS: a sequence of steps by which legal judgments are invoked ~ verbale (sommario di attività svolta)

PROSECUTION: a judicial proceeding brought by one party against another; one party prosecutes another for a wrong done or for protection of a right or for prevention of a wrong ~ azione penale.

PROSECUTOR: a lawyer who represents the government in criminal cases (also known as the Assistant District Attorney or A.D.A., the People, or the prosecution). ~ P.M o pubblico ministero.

PROSECUTOR’S OFFICE: Procura della Repubblica.

PURGE OF GUILTY: to exonerate someone; to clear someone of guilt, charges, or accusations. ~ assoluzione, proscioglimento, non luogo a procedere, caduta dei capi d’imputazione.

PURSUIT: the act of pursuing legally ~ perseguire legalmente

R

RAPE: unlawful sexual intercourse with a person without her/his consent. ~ violenza sessuale, stupro

RECORD (CRIMINAL R.): a list of crimes for which an accused person has been previously convicted ~ fedina penale, casellario giudiziale

RELEASE ON RECOGNIZANCE (ROR): to be released from custody without bail while a case is pending. This is often referred to as parole. ~ libertà vigilata

REVERSE: to overthrow, invalidate, repeal, or revoke. ~ rovesciare: l’atto con cui una corte d’appello revoca la sentenza del tribunale di prima istanza, spesso accompagnato da remand, cioè rinvio al tribunale di merito per ulteriori procedimenti.

ROBBERY: the taking of money or goods in the possession of another, from his or her person or immediate presence, by force or intimidation. ~ rapina

S

SANCTION PENALTY:  sanzione.

SLANDER: False or malicious statements that are insulting or belittling) and hurt a person’s reputation.  See libel. ~ diffamazione, denigrazione; è una delle due forme che può assumere la defamation ed è la dichiarazione falsa e diffamatoria relativa a una persona fatta verbalmente o in un’altra forma non permanente. Non costituisce reato, anche se dà diritto a proporre un’azione civile.

SUE: to initiate a lawsuit or continue a legal proceeding for the recovery of a right; to prosecute, assert a legal claim, or bring action against a particular party. ~  denunciare

 

W 

WARRANT:  An order in writing that is issued and signed by a Judge or judicial officer telling a peace officer to do something. There are many kinds of warrants:  1.  An arrest warrant orders a peace officer to bring the person accused of a crime to court.  2.  A bench warrant is a Judge’s order to arrest and bring a person to court because the person did not appear in court when he or she was supposed to.  3.  A search warrant is an order telling law enforcement officers to search a specific premise for specific persons or things and to bring them to the court.  4.  A warrant of eviction in Landlord/Tenant Court describes the place and allows a marshal or sheriff to remove the occupants and give possession to another. ~ mandato

WITNESS: person who gives evidence in court ~ testimone

WRONGFUL: immoral, unjust, or illegal ~ illecito

[1] Legal Glossary NY Service

[2] Legal Glossary NY Service